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These types of skin infections are caused by a parasite. These infections can spread beyond the skin to the bloodstream and organs. The symptoms of a skin infection also vary depending on the type.

Common symptoms include redness of the skin and a rash. You may also experience other symptoms, such as itching, pain, and tenderness. Skin infections can spread beyond the skin and into the bloodstream. When this happens it can become life-threatening. Bacterial skin infection: This occurs when bacteria enter the body through a break in the skin, such as a cut or a scratch. Viral skin infection: The most common viruses come from one of three groups of viruses: poxvirus, human papillomavirus, and herpes virus.

Fungal infection: Body chemistry and lifestyle can increase the risk of a fungal infection. Fungi often grow in warm, moist environments. Wearing sweaty or wet clothes is a risk factor for skin infections. A break or cut in the skin may allow bacteria to get into the deeper layers of the skin.

Parasitic skin infection : Tiny insects or organisms burrowing underneath your skin and laying eggs can cause a parasitic skin infection.

Scabies: A clinical update

A good medical exam is the best way to determine what is causing a skin infection. Often, doctors can identify the type of skin infection based on the appearance and location. Your doctor may ask about your symptoms and closely examine any bumps, rashes, or lesions. For example, ringworm often causes a distinct circular, scaly rash.

Skin infection pictures and treatments

In other cases, a sample of skin cells can help your doctor determine the type of infection. Treatment depends on the cause of the infection and the severity. Some types of viral skin infections may improve on their own within days or weeks. Bacterial infections are often treated with topical antibiotics applied directly to the skin or with oral antibiotics. If the strain of bacteria is resistant to treatment, treating the infection may require intravenous antibiotics administered in the hospital.

You can use over-the-counter antifungal sprays and creams to treat a fungal skin infection. In addition, you can apply medicated creams to your skin to treat parasitic skin infections. Your doctor may also recommend medications to reduce discomfort like anti-inflammatory drugs. The prognosis for a skin infection varies depending on the cause. Most types of bacterial infections respond well to medications. Histologically, early lesions show dense perifollicular inflammatory infiltrates consisting mostly of neutrophils. In later stages, follicular rupture, lymphocytes, histiocytes and plasma cells are seen, as well as perifollicular and interstitial dermal fibrosis [ 6 , 7 ].

Differential diagnosis of FD consists of follicular degeneration syndrome or central centrifugal scarring alopecia. As FD is usually associated with infection of S. Because of its high lipid solubility, and it is said to be the best antistaphylococcal antibiotic, rifampicin has been successfully used in combination with various other antibiotics [ 5 , 7 ].

Rifampicin is not recommended for lone use. Rifampicin mg b. Shampooing with antibacterial wash products and topical corticosteroids may also be useful. Varying results have been reported after treatment with prednisolone, isotretinoin, human immunoglobulin and more recently biologics [e.

There is very limited evidence that FD can be treated with dapsone, minoxidil or radiation therapy [ 12 ]. Infection with S. Tufting of hair is caused by clustering of adjacent follicular unit due to a fibrosing process and to retention of telogen hairs within a dilated follicular orifice [ 14 ].

The patients were 20—60 years old, the peak incidence occurring in 30 years [ 4 ]. It affects male more frequently than female. Clinically, it presents erythematous, infiltrated plaque of cicatricial alopecia and enlarged follicular openings with tufts containing 20—30 apparently normal hair shafts Figure 1.

The lesions are usually found in the occipital and parietal areas [ 8 ]. Frequently reported subjective symptoms are pruritus, pain and scales adherent to the scalp and hair. Regional lymph node enlargement [occipital, pre- or retroauricular] may also be noticed [ 9 ]. Underlying differences in follicular anatomy or host response may be responsible for the lesion [ 15 ]. Histopathological studies reveal scarring with perifollicular inflammation of plasma cells, lymphocytes and neutrophils around the upper portions of the follicles sparing at the hair root level.

Scabies - including symptoms, treatment and prevention

Multiple hairs are seen emerging from a single follicular opening Figure 2 [ 13 ]. Dermoscopic image of the scalp with tufted folliculitis characterised by multiple hairs emerging from one single dilated follicular orifice.

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THF may be seen with dissecting cellulitis of the scalp, folliculitis decalvans, acne keloidalis, Melkersson-Rosenthal syndrome and hidradenitis suppurativa [ 16 ]. In some case reports it has been described that tufted folliculitis in association with medication use, specifically with cyclosporine and lapatinib [ 17 , 18 ].

Differential diagnosis consists of folliculitis decalvans, folliculitis keloidalis nuchae, kerion celsi, dissecting cellulitis of scalp, trichostasis spinulosa, follicular lichen planus and relapsing staphylococcal folliculitis [ 19 ]. The course of THF is chronic and the patient may experience intermittent flares and remissions. Treatment of this relapsing condition is notoriously difficult. Rifampicin and nadifloxacin have been proven as more effective than other therapeutic modality to control the pustular phase of the disease, of the best antibiotics active against S.

Rifampicin can be used with a dose of mg twice per day for 4 weeks or mg daily for 10 weeks [ 20 , 21 ]. Recently, a case of tufted hair folliculitis being treated with trastuzumab, a selective HER2 inhibitor, has been reported [ 22 ]. Good results with excision of the areas of scarring have also been described [ 13 , 15 ]. Acne keloidalis nuchae [AKN] is a chronic scarring folliculitis characterised by fibrotic, keloid-like papules and plaques on the occipital scalp and posterior neck. The term acne keloidalis was given to this condition in by Bazin [ 23 ].

Early AKN lesions are seen as mildly pruritic papules and pustules arranged in irregularly linear groups just below the hairline.


With continued inflammation or infection the papules tend to coalesce and form hypertrophic scars or keloids that may be painful and disfiguring Figures 3 and 4. It is very common in individuals of African descent. The exact aetiology of AKN is unclear but it is associated with several factors including androgen excess, chronic mechanical trauma such as close haircuts and chronic rubbing of the area by clothing stimulating an inflammatory reaction, secondary bacterial infection, mast cell density and medications such as antiepileptic drugs or cyclosporine [ 24 , 26 — 28 ].

Differential diagnosis of AKN consists of the other chronic scarring folliculocentric pustules localised to the scalp. First step in treatment is patient education. It should be advised that the patient should avoid from mechanical irritation from clothing for prevention. Prognosis becomes good if the treatment begins at early stage. However, once major scarring develops, therapy is more difficult and morbidity is increased.

If pathogenic microorganism with culture are identified, appropriate antibiotics should be prescribed.

Bibliographic Information

Oral isotretinoin of 20 mg daily may be used alone or in combination with topical fusidic acid and oral cefadroxil [ mg twice daily for 2 weeks] to treat the patient [ 30 ]. Other treatment options are cryotherapy and targeted ultraviolet B [— nm] phototherapy. Combination of cryotherapy and intralesional steroid may help to reduce the size and firmness of papules and nodules [ 31 ]. Radiation therapy and intralesional 5-fluorouracil are alternative treatment strategies for refractory cases [ 32 ].

Patients who present with big fibrotic nodules would benefit most from surgical excision. Excision with primary closure may be used for excellent cosmetic results for the management of extensive cases of AKN [ 23 , 28 , 34 ]. Tinea capitis TC is a disease caused by dermatophytes of the skin of the scalp with a propensity for attacking hair shafts and follicles.

see It occurs predominantly in pre-pubertal children aged between 3 and 7 years. It is reported more in boys than in girls within pre-pubertal age. Tinea capitis is the most seen pediatric dermatophyte infection worldwide [ 35 ]. All species of Trichophyton and Microsporum can cause TC.