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Gendering the HIV Pandemic. No cover image. Read preview. Rather than enumerating the effects on women of confused or conflicting policies and representation, the book details why and how this situation occurred. What Cameron says is an indication that much has already been said and written about the disease.
The vulnerability of women 11 contracting the HI-virus is well documented. But the disease is also unknown.
- Last Served?: Gendering the HIV Pandemic (Social Aspects of AIDS).
- Last Served?: Gendering the HIV Pandemic.
- Last Served?: Gendering the HIV Pandemic by Cindy Patton - prevrebasherd.tk.
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- Social Aspects of AIDS - Routledge?
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It is guessed estimated projected approximated sketched debated disputed controverted hidden obscured. I agree with Cameron, because, for example the high prevalence rate amongst women could be disputed - given that, compared to men, women are more likely to test or rather be tested.
While the 'high HIV-prevalence rate among women could be contested, it is true that women are being branded as the 'carriers of the virus. I want to argue that it is the vulnerability of women that, is not only a result of the inferior status assigned to women, but that it also contributes to perpetuating the inferior status of women - as they are blamed, not only for spreading the disease, but also for the trans-generational aspect of the disease.
Therefore, I agree with Okure that the virus which assigns women to an inferior status in society is deadlier than the HI-virus. We know that in South Africa and most, if not all, sub-Saharan countries women's financial dependence on their husbands, partners or male relatives has increased their vulnerability to domestic violence, rape, incest and abuse - all of which the case study 'speaks volumes'. This brings me to the second virus more deadly than HIV identified by Okure -that of the economic dependence on abusive male partners.
Women who find themselves in situations of abuse are often silenced to maintain the financial support provided by the male abuser. As the case study reveals, this financial dependence silences not only the women in the family, but also the financially dependent males.
This silence reflects what Iris Marion Young refers to as 'powerlessness' which is a powerful tool of social control. Being powerless is often internalised by the oppressed which leads to the oppressed accepting their subjugation as the 'natural order of things'. One consequence of internalized oppression is the persistent and chronic feelings of shame and guilt - a false guilt which is imposed upon certain people, by those who wish to maintain control over them.
HIV / AIDS - Our World in Data
Considering the above, I want argue that patriarchal privilege may be considered a virus more deadlier than the HI-virus because it fuels, justifies and perpetuates not only what Okure calls the 'inferior position of women' but also the economic dependence embedded in its male headship. Living in an AIDS era - has created an awareness that a crisis presents challenges and opportunities. This paradox may possibly be understood in the light of the threat that the AIDS pandemic holds to human life in all its facets, as well as the opportunity it offers to challenge the patriarchy of our Christian faith that collude with cultural beliefs and practices.
On Challenging the Patriarchy of our Faith. We must repent of the historic patriarchy of our faith which so often colludes with discriminatory attitudes in our cultures. We must expose and oppose gender violence and all forms of inequality in our midst. For me, the question, 'How do we repent of the historic patriarchy of our faith'? Is what matters - if we hope to move beyond public statements captured in official documents.
The fact that patriarchal privilege is what perpetuates and sustains skewed gender relations and, arguments that patriarchal power in its many facets is what renders women vulnerable to contracting the HI-virus, is well documented. We are also aware of the various responses from different churches. Public pronouncements about what the church ought to be doing also reflect some churches' response to the challenges around HIV and AIDS.
Some church leaders' public profiles like the Pope, Archbishops and Bishops afford them an international platform from where the church's voice is heard. At grassroots level, the churches' response of care, compassion and service is vital in terms of reacting appropriately to the pandemic and is indeed part of what the church ought to be doing. Education, awareness campaigns and workshops have contributed toward 'breaking the silence' around the disease.
While raising funds; and making donations to the poor and vulnerable AIDS 'sufferers' especially the innocent AIDS orphans are important responses, it raises other concerns. When members of a particular congregation continue to see AIDS as a problem 'out there' it creates new categories of exclusion maintained by those who think it cannot happen to them. For example:. These are the attitudes of many churchgoing Christians which contribute to the perception that AIDS is a disease of sexually promiscuous individuals from particular 'at risk' communities, such as homosexuals, the poor, the youth, prostitutes and black people.
What I have said thusfar, raises two questions for the Christian church: how to 'see' differently, and how to repent of the historic patriarchy of our faith. For the church to respond to the theological challenges presented by the AIDS pandemic, it has to respond from the basis of its unique nature and identity as community. Local congregations are communities of people who come together to worship in fellowship.
HIV / AIDS
Collective identity is shaped during the worship service. During worship, Christians remember God's great act of love and because of this remembrance of God's salvific love, there is hope. For Christians, this hope is drawn from the story of God's love through Jesus Christ. Christian worship provides creative opportunities for re considering how we see God, ourselves, others and the environment, in which and with which we interact, and it also provides unique opportunities to help us look in the right direction.
It is within the space created during worship that the opportunity exists for the changing of the hearts and minds of Christians. A study document of the World Council of Churches describes worship as "a special moment for celebration - an attempt to place daily life on the stage". It further states that:. Worship can help churches to remove the barriers we create in the everyday life of our human communities by opening our eyes, our ears and all our senses to the extraordinary significance of the 'ordinary' experiences and to ways of expressing God's presence amidst the people and creation.
It is during worship that the space is created for opportunities to look in the right direction in order to re shape the worshipping community's thoughts, beliefs, attitudes and actions.
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I want to suggest that the worship service has the potential of an enabling moment for Christians to 'see' patriarchy for what it is. But Christian clergy - men and women - should be challenged to reflect on 'the will to look and see differently' because, be warned Christian worship is an ambivalent phenomenon - while it has the potential to change the way we see things, it can and has been used to avoid what we should see and thereby sustain the status quo.
Since then, the total number of deaths has almost halved, falling to less than 1 million in In children with HIV, transmission has typically occurred from the mother mother-to-child-transmission; MTCT either during pregnancy or childbirth, or through breastfeeding.
The charts below shows the total number of children aged 14 years old and under who are living with HIV. Globally the number of children living with HIV peaked in at approximately 2. This has since declined to 1. The visualisation below shows the total number of children newly infected with HIV each year.
In an estimated , new children were infected with HIV. The chart below shows the number of children aged 17 and under orphaned from AIDS deaths. The charts below show both the differences in prevalence between males and females, and the differences in AIDS-deaths. As seen, HIV prevalence tends to be higher in women across Sub-Saharan Africa, although higher in males across most other regions.
The reasons for differences in prevalence and death rates are complex; however, in general, across Sub-Saharan Africa women tend to be infected with HIV earlier than men and survive longer explaining both the higher prevalence and lower annual AIDS deaths in women. There are a number of gender inequality and social norm issues which result in higher prevalence of HIV in females across many countries; women are at greater risk when they have a limited role in sexual decision-making and protection, role rates of sexual education and higher rates of transactional sex 1.
Reducing the impact of the HIV epidemic requires the prevention of further transmission, as well as treatment for those already living with HIV. Antiretroviral therapy ART is highly active in suppressing viral replication, reducing the amount of the virus in the blood to undetectable levels and slowing the progress of HIV disease. Globally, 1. The majority of HIV infections are transmitted through sexual activity.
Sexual transmission can be prevented through condom use both in heterosexual and homosexual relationships.
- Last Served?: Gendering the HIV Pandemic - CRC Press Book.
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The following chart shows that while globally life expectancy has been increasing since the s, several countries in Sub-Saharan Africa saw a major decrease in life expectancy with the onset of the AIDS crisis around Life expectancy has started to increase again since the early s, but for many of the countries shown, levels have not yet returned to life expectancies prior to the AIDS crisis. Tuberculosis TB is the leading HIV-associated opportunistic infection in low- and middle- income countries, and it is a leading cause of death globally among people living with HIV.
Death due to tuberculosis still remains high among people living with HIV, however the number of deaths is decreasing. The following chart shows international and domestic spending on HIV, broken down by donor, and region in low- and middle-income countries.
Last Served? Gendering the HIV Pandemic
Previously, we have seen that AIDs deaths are still steadily increasing in the Middle East and North Africa, which may partially be due to the lack of domestic resources placed on ART therapy in this region. Discrimination towards those living with HIV remains common in many countries. High-coverage data on discrimination is scarce, however in the charts below we see the share of the population with discriminatory attitudes across a number of countries. The presented figures show the share of respondents who had previously heard of HIV who said they would not buy from a vendor with HIV.