Rectification and the Decline of Party Norms, Leadership, Legitimacy, and Conflict in China. From a Charismatic Mao to the Politics of Succession. Paradoxes of Post-Mao Rural Reform. Initial Steps toward a New Chinese Countryside, Teiwes and 1 more. Politics and Purges in China. Deng Xiaoping and the Transformation of China.
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Continue shopping. Item s unavailable for purchase. Please review your cart. However, a powerful hegemonic bloc of transnational capital, domestic coastal export industries, and pro-capitalist state officials—as well as neoliberal media, intellectual leaders, and their middle class followers—continues to block any substantial efforts at reorienting the Chinese developmental path. Previously a municipality of Sichuan province, Chongqing gained provincial jurisdiction status in This cultivated a strong working class, who had been on the forefront of anti-privatization struggles until the mid—s.
Partly because of this, since the central authorities have given Chongqing more leeway to experiment with integrating urban and rural development.
This particular configuration of socio-historical, geopolitical, as well as biographical forces gave rise to the Chongqing Model. Chongqing took aggressive steps in bridging the urban-rural gap, enabling as many as 3. In fact, there was nothing radical in these policies—if they were measured against official rhetoric. Rather than oppose capitalist reintegration, Chongqing aggressively courted global capital. In Shenzhen, Foxconn was allowed to disembed itself from society by forcing workers to live in factory-supplied, military-barrack-style dorms.
In contrast, Chongqing provided cheap public rental housing to Foxconn workers. In short, as Philip Huang observed, the Chongqing Model attempted to find a way that allows the complementary growth of state, transnational, and domestic private sectors in a mixed economy. The Western culture from the British bourgeois revolution in has had a history of more than years.
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Most significantly, he argued that the CCP could not wait for too long before dealing with the problem of social polarization, because then vested interests would be too powerful and it would be no longer possible to make any change. As a result, it gained wide popularity. Second, members of the village or urban community CCP Committee must make two visits to rural or urban households to solicit opinions on government policies and address issues and concerns; third, open lines of communication between the Party Secretary and the public must be established through opinion boxes, emails, and telephone hotlines; feedback must be provided within a given time frame.
Shortly thereafter, another set of practices was initiated in Promoted as the soft side of the iron-fisted Striking Black campaign, Singing Red is the communication and cultural component of the Chongqing Model. To be sure, the post-Mao CCP has not stopped championing socialism in rhetoric. However, in the absence of a coordinated socioeconomic development model that resembles anything like building a socialist society, such campaigns not only sound hollow, but also breed cynicism.
Launched in , the campaign centered on the communicative acts of singing red songs, reading classics, telling revolutionary and uplifting stories, and texting exhortative maxims. Bo took the lead in these. Moreover, in an act now perceived as part of an attempt to upstage the central leadership, he led a massive Chongqing cultural troupe in staging seven Singing Red performances in Beijing in June However, the range of content in the Singing Red campaign was actually quite broad.
It drew from a wide array of musical styles, literary texts, and maxims. Since the s, Chinese society—especially disenfranchised social groups—experienced a deep nostalgia for socialist morality. Underscoring the centrality of lived experience and the power of popular culture, especially popular music, this yearning was most vocally expressed in the voluntary group singing of revolutionary songs in public spaces.
China’s Red Empire — To Be or Not To Be?
In this way, CQTV aimed to forge a new revolutionary national-popular culture:. It is the overall name for advanced and progressive culture. As anti-neoliberal scholars, who had largely been invisible to other television outlets, became forum guests and put forward their visions for a more equitable and sustainable Chinese developmental path, the provocative effects and historical significance of the program in the Chinese media ecology were not to be underestimated. To be sure, this was a work in progress. The centerpiece of the institutionalization project was the practice of regular peaceful leadership succession followed by Jiang Zemin and Hu Jintao.
He has clearly signaled his intention to remain in office after his normal two terms end in A fter Mao Zedong died at the age of 82 in , his successors deliberately crafted a system that they hoped would prevent the rise of another dictator.
Mao had turned against other leaders and put the nation at risk through irrational schemes. Susan L. From to , she served as a U. View all work by Susan L. All these moves were meant to decentralize authority, regularize political life, and check dictatorial power. The centerpiece of the effort to prevent dictatorship and regularize political competition was the practice of peaceful leadership succession.
After Jiang, Hu Jintao served ten years in the three top offices, then voluntarily retired from all those positions in and Yet today, after decades of collective leadership, Xi Jinping is taking China back to personalistic leadership. By the end of his first five-year term, Xi had consolidated greater personal power than Jiang or Hu had ever held.
Xi broke precedent by not promoting a successor-in-training at the Nineteenth Party Congress in October China in the twenty-first century is a vibrant modern economy and society open to the world, with a large and well-educated urban middle class. Many people inside and outside the country expected its political system to follow the historical example of other authoritarian regimes by gradually institutionalizing governance to make it more accountable, responsive, and law-bound. Until , that is essentially what happened.
But under Xi Jinping, China is making a U-turn. Personalistic rule is back. In institutionalizing collective leadership after Mao, the CCP was taking the path followed earlier by communist parties in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Xi Jinping is determined to avert such a fate for the CCP, so he has turned in the opposite direction. His unexpected reversion to strongman rule suggests that the change from personalism to institutionalized collective leadership in authoritarian regimes is cyclical, not evolutionary.
Xi Jinping has grasped all the levers of power in the Party and the state including the military and police. The Party has reclaimed the authority over economic policy that it delegated to the state starting in the s.
Leadership, Legitimacy, and Conflict in China
Within the Party, Xi acts as if he is personally in charge of everything. He chairs eight of the leading small groups including the National Security Commission. Xi also handles internal security directly, thereby reducing the chances of a coup. Mao had to share power with powerful revolutionary-era marshals. Through this crackdown he cleaned up the CCP—and purged his rivals. They included seventeen full and seventeen alternate Central Committee members, a pair of sitting Politburo members, an ex-member of the Politburo Standing Committee, and more than a hundred generals and admirals.
The main goal, said Xi, was to restore public respect for the Party.
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This will include professors, doctors, and executives of state-owned enterprises. The crackdown gave Xi weapons to eliminate potential rivals, erase competing power centers, and enforce through fear the absolute loyalty of the political elite to the CCP and to himself. When it comes to sharing power with other Party leaders, the contrast between Xi and his predecessor Hu Jintao could not be more striking.
Hu let senior CCP figures govern their own policy domains and build their own patronage networks. Xi Jinping has been systematically demolishing the organizational bases for patronage networks controlled by others. During his first term, Xi used the Discipline Commission to purge six powerful leaders for alleged coup attempts. Xi Jinping is preoccupied with shoring up loyalty to the Party and himself. Despite his apparent grip on power, his insecurity is glaring. According to the film, even as the Soviet public continued overwhelmingly to support the CPSU, corrupt and ideologically confused leaders such as Mikhail Gorbachev and Boris Yeltsin destroyed it from the top down.
Xi has also turned left ideologically, striking fear into intellectuals, journalists, and private businesspeople. Western textbooks are banned and being replaced with new indigenous versions that emphasize Marxism. At all levels of schooling, more time is now being devoted to mandatory politics courses.
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Schools of Marxism are enjoying a renaissance on campuses all over the country. Xi, meanwhile, gives speeches promoting a rosy view of the Mao era that no one outside the hard-left fringes has voiced in thirty years. Censorship was once fragmented across agencies, with cracks that nimble journalists and netizens could exploit to circulate information.
Now the censors are more consolidated and centralized. Editors of online news sites report that censorship has become more granular and efficient.