The first stage of development was called "era of inspection. According to Garvin in the U. For the first time, the quality was seen as managerial responsibility having distinct and independent function in the companies. Later, the year of was a milestone in the quality movement and the beginning of the second phase, the Statistical Quality Control. This phase had a preventive approach, centered on the monitoring and control of process variables that could influence in the final product quality through the development of statistical tools for sampling and process control.
The next phase was called Quality Assurance, that was associated with broader control and prevention, which sought through systematic management, ensure quality at all stages of obtaining the product. The quality management became a practice restricted to industrial production management applied to all production support functions. In the U. Finally, quality management has been incorporated within the strategic scope of organizations, this phase called Strategic Management of Quality.
It represented a vision of market-oriented management, i. The strategic approach is an extension of its predecessors, but with a more proactive approach.
Several scholars of quality management are unanimous in emphasizing that the companies in general, and also the food industry, through its organizational structure, the policies adopted, the focus given to the business and the practice of quality control, demonstrate a certain degree of maturity in how to manage quality. Some companies may present practices related to more advanced stages, mature, such as quality assurance and strategic quality management, others may prove more practices related to inspection and process control.
Through observation of tools and methods currently adopted in the food industry, it can be inferred that this quality management company is based on the characteristics of a particular stage of the quality evolution. For example, the control of the raw material and products for inspection, with special attention to satisfy the governmental health rules, is a characteristic of the inspection stage. Likewise, the product control only by laboratory analysis is a feature of this stage.
Quality Assurance in the Food Industry– Defect Prevention
But when practice inspection and process control are well established in the company and efforts are directed towards continuous improvement, it can be inferred that the company is evolved into a system of quality assurance. Practices consistent with this era are shown by performing quality audits in different sectors of the company, adoption of quality systems across the supply chain and also implementation of programs for the development of quality suppliers of products and services. Companies that take a strategic quality management are those that use market research and specific indicators to measure customer satisfaction, such as consumer complaints, returns by wholesalers for the time of the product in the inventory and sales below target.
Further, evaluate their products compared to competitors' products and apply techniques of sensory analysis to compare products and find sensory qualities required by the market. Concerned to improve their production processes, automate production lines and constantly launch new products into the market. In general, the operating system of quality control in the food industry must meet some specific tasks.
For this, there is need for procedures to control insects, rodents, birds and other pests, and procedures for cleaning and sanitizing equipment, industrial plant and storage areas. Still, personal hygiene of staff working on process lines and proper habits on food handling should be implemented and monitored to ensure that food safety standards are met. In cooperation with the departments of production, research and development, engineering or operations, the department of quality control analyzes manufacturing processes to "Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Points.
The participation of staff from other departments of the company occurs by the virtue of their expertise in relation to consumer demands or knowledge of product technology and process, and the participation of the operators of the process, because of its experience in the production. The quality control personnel works in different laboratories performing physical, chemical, microbiological and sensory properties of raw materials, ingredients, packaging materials and finished products.
They also work in the factory or processing areas, collecting samples for performance evaluation processes, unit operations, sanitary conditions or levels, verifying compliance with the requirements of food safety and all other operating specifications. It is the responsibility of the department of quality control implementation of Statistical Quality Control SQC , in which statistical techniques are applied to assessments of control for scientific analysis and interpretation of data. The SQC's functions include the selection of sampling techniques, control charts for attributes and variables, the use of analysis of variance and correlation, among other statistical tools.
The methods, procedures and selection of instruments used to measure quality attributes of products and processes are the responsibility of the department of quality control. These techniques can be developed for specific purposes within the production process, to product development or troubleshooting and optimization standards. The quality control personnel must interact cooperatively with the personnel of the standards and inspection agencies to ensure that the official food law is understood and met.
It should also watch the production department in its efforts to increase revenues, reduce losses and improve efficiency of operations. It should also develop, conduct and assist in an organized program, training of supervisors, operators and workers in general, into specific concepts of quality. The development of an appropriate plan of "recollect" adulterated or defective product in marketing channels and the planning of internal traceability of products is also a function of the quality control department.
Another assignment of quality control includes reviewing and responding to consumer complaints.
Thus, faced with so many responsibilities, it remains to note that the dynamics of intervention and performance of those who are responsible for the quality department is paramount to the success of the food industry and customer satisfaction. The quality management applies systems and tools that are intended to assist the implementation of quality-oriented way to improve the product and the process, increasing the levels of quality business and ensuring customer's satisfaction.
The purpose of this topic is to describe some tools, techniques and systems that have been more widely used in quality management in the food industry. Besides the methods mentioned, there are others that could be employed by companies. The choice of which implement depends on the company's strategies and know-how of its employees.
The issue of food safety has been in the public eye as never before. Foodborne disease has an enormous public health impact, as well as significant social and economic consequences.
It is estimated that each year foodborne disease causes approximately 76 million illnesses, , hospitalizations and 5, deaths in the U. Thus, many food safety programs have been published in order to ensure safe food production and consumer protection. These measures aim to prevent food contamination, such contamination are chemical, physical or microbiological. The Good Manufacturing Practices program is composed of a set of principles and rules to be adopted by the food industry in order to ensure the sanitary quality of their products.
The GMP program came at the end of the last century when the U.
Quality Control in the Food Industry V2
In the late 60's, organizations such as the WHO World Health Organization and the Food and Drug Administration of the United States, the FDA Food and Drug Administration adopted the program as a minimum criterion recommended to the manufacture of food products under adequate sanitation conditions and routine inspection. These standards are characterized by a set of items summarized below. The equipment and the entire apparatus of materials used in industrial processing should be designed from materials that prevent the accumulation of dirt and must be innocuous to avoid the migration of undesirable particles to foods.
On the production line, the procedures and steps for handling the product have to be documented, in order to ensure the standardization of safety practices. Also running records should be implemented as evidence that the job was well done. Otherwise, the cleaning and sanitizing phases are inherent to the processing and handling of foods, and thus programs for execution on a routine and efficiently must be implemented. Similarly, is required a plan for integrated pest control in order to minimize access vector and reduce the number of possible focus of insects, rodents and birds.
Regarding food handlers, the GMP recommend that training should be given and recycled so the concepts of hygiene and proper handling are assimilated as a working philosophy and fulfilled to the letter.
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A control of raw materials should be developed with suppliers, not only in the laboratory, but in a gradual and continuous improvement work, where food security is split with suppliers. Guidelines for the safe packaging of raw materials, inputs and finished products should be followed and extended to the storage and loading area, and to the transportation that reach the consumer. The Good Manufacturing Practices have wide and effective application when all the elements cited are effectively deployed. HACCP is a system based on prevention of hazards to the industry to produce safe food to consumers.
The HACCP involves a complete analysis of the dangers in the systems of production, handling, processing and consumption of a food product. HACCP is widely acknowledged as the best method of assuring product safety and is becoming internationally recognized as a tool for controlling food-borne safety hazards [ 3 ].
Quality assurance for small-scale rural food industries - Chapter 1. Basic principles
In short, this system has a systematic and scientific approach to process control, designed to prevent the occurrence of failures, ensuring that the controls are applied in processing steps where hazards might occur or critical situations. For this, the HACCP system combines technical information updated with detailed procedures to evaluate and monitor the flow of food into an industry. The new sanitary requirements and quality requirements dictated by the main international markets, led since , to the deployment experimental stage of the HACCP.
There are new rules governing the international market, established during the Uruguay Round of Trade Negotiations and applicable to all member countries of the World Trade Organization WTO. The Codex Alimentarius has become the regulatory body for matters of hygiene and food safety in the WTO. The Codex Alimentarius reflects an international consensus regarding the requirements for protection of human health in relation to the risks of foodborne illness. This measure is accelerating the process of harmonization of food laws of the countries, process that is oriented concerning food security, with the recommendation of the use of the system Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point, to ensure food safety.
Generally the HACCP system initially involves the creation of a multifunctional team, supported by senior management of the company, and the characterization of all food products that will be included in the system. Only then each step of the production process of a product will be analyzed for the possibility of a chemical, physical and microbiological contamination. For each critical point is necessary to establish critical control limits, which allow the monitoring of hazards. As there is always a possibility of failure, it is essential to provide corrective measures in order to ensure the process return into a controlled situation.
Finally, the HACCP plan is disseminated to the production employees and for those responsible for assessing the products quality on the factory floor. Internal and external audits are recommended for periodic maintenance and continuous improvement of the system [ 5 ].
Quality Control in the Food Industry
Standardization is a management tool involved in the preparation, training and control standards within the company. Such standards are documents containing technical specifications or specific criteria that will be used as a guide in order to ensure that products, processes and services are designed with quality [ 6 ]. The main objective of a program of standardization for the food industry is to minimize the variations in quality of production. For this, it is necessary to provide means to standardize both the operational and analytical procedures, as raw materials, machinery and equipment used in the manufacturing process.
The patterns are instruments that indicate the goal and procedures for accomplishment of the work and can be classified as follows:. Standards of Quality SQ : refer to the parameters related to quality of products, raw materials and inputs. Operation Standards: describe the manufacturing process of a product, the technical parameters of control by the operators and operating procedures. The first document describes the process of manufacture of a product, the quality characteristics and the control parameters.
Operating procedures standards are prepared by managers and operators to achieve the objectives proposed in the SPT and SQs. Standards Inspection: describe methods and criteria for assessing the degree of success achieved in carrying out an activity, compared to planned levels of quality for the product. The inspection may occur in the process, the finished product and in the raw material. Through standardization it is achieved greater standardization of products, improved productivity and product quality, cost reduction, simplification and optimization of production processes, increase the technical capacity of operators of process, greater job security, reduction of inventory levels of raw materials and inputs, reducing the preparation time of the machines and self-management by the workers.
Also noteworthy is that the patterns facilitate the transfer of knowledge since all the people and functional units involved in a particular pattern should collaborate, as far as possible, be trained in their preparation and for their use. The PDCA cycle is a method of managerial decision-making to ensure the achievement of goals related to a process, product or service [ 7 ]. The Plan P consists in establishing goals, and procedures to achieve them. The stage Do D consists in performing the tasks as planned and collect data that will be used in the step control.
Thus, in the stage of "implementation" are essential trainings at work. Check C consists of comparing the results achieved with the planned goals through quality control tools. Finally, Action A is to act correctively in the process in order to correct an unexpected result. As can be seen in Figure 1 , a schematic representation of PDCA cycle translates the dynamism steps purposes. The conclusion of a turn in the cycle continues back to the beginning of the next cycle, and so on.