How dumb the world is. In , an American psychic named Felicia Parise allegedly moved a pill bottle across a kitchen counter by psychokinesis. Her feats were endorsed by the parapsychologist Charles Honorton. Science writer Martin Gardner wrote Parise had "bamboozled" Honorton by moving the bottle by an invisible thread stretched between her hands.
Boris Ermolaev, a Russian psychic, was known for levitating small objects. Ermolaev would sit on a chair and allegedly move the objects between his knees but due to the lighting conditions a fine thread fixed between his knees suspending the objects was observed by the camera crew.
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The Russian psychic Alla Vinogradova was said to be able to move objects without touching them on transparent acrylic plastic or a plexiglass sheet. The parapsychologist Stanley Krippner had observed Vinogradova rub an aluminum tube before moving it allegedly by psychokinesis. Krippner suggested no psychokinesis was involved; the effect was produced by an electrostatic charge.
Vinogradova was featured in the Nova documentary Secrets of the Psychics which followed the debunking work of James Randi. Before the experiments she was observed combing her hair and rubbing the surface of the acrylic plastic. Massimo Polidoro has replicated the feats of Vinogradova by using an acrylic plastic surface and showing how easy it is to move any kind of object on top of it due to the charges of static electricity.
The effect is easily achieved if the surface is electrically charged by rubbing a towel or a hand on it.
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Psychics have also claimed the psychokinetic ability to bend metal. Uri Geller was famous for his spoon bending demonstrations, allegedly by PK. Girard was tested in the s but failed to produce any paranormal effects in scientifically controlled conditions.
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The experiment was directed by the physicist Yves Farge with a magician also present. All of the experiments were negative as Girard failed to make any of the objects move paranormally. He failed two tests in Grenoble in June with the magician James Randi. Girard failed to bend any bars or change the structure of the metals. Other experiments into spoon bending were also negative and witnesses described his feats as fraudulent.
Girard later admitted that he would sometimes cheat to avoid disappointing the public but insisted he still had genuine psychic power. Stephen North, a British psychic in the late s, was known for his alleged psychokinetic ability to bend spoons and teleport objects in and out of sealed containers.
The British physicist John Hasted tested North in a series of experiments which he claimed had demonstrated psychokinesis, though his experiments were criticized for lack of scientific controls. Randi wrote "I find it unfortunate that [Hasted] never had an epiphany in which he was able to recognize just how thoughtless, cruel, and predatory were the acts perpetrated on him by fakers who took advantage of his naivety and trust.
They were encouraged to shout at the items of cutlery they had brought and to jump and scream to create an atmosphere of pandemonium or what scientific investigators called heightened suggestibility. Critics were excluded and participants were told to avoid looking at their hands. Thousands of people attended these emotionally charged parties, and many became convinced that they had bent silverware by paranormal means. PK parties have been described as a campaign by paranormal believers to convince people of the existence of psychokinesis, on the basis of nonscientific data from personal experience and testimony.
The United States National Academy of Sciences has criticized PK parties on the grounds that conditions are not reliable for obtaining scientific results and "are just those which psychologists and others have described as creating states of heightened suggestibility. Ronnie Marcus, an Israeli psychic and claimant of psychokinetic metal bending, was tested in in scientifically controlled conditions and failed to produce any paranormal phenomena.
Marcus bent a letter opener by the concealed application of force and a frame-by-frame analysis of video showed that he bent a spoon from pressure from his thumb by ordinary, physical means. Psychokinesis and telekinesis have commonly been used as superpowers in comic books, movies, television, computer games, literature, and other forms of popular culture.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Psychic ability allowing a person to influence a physical system without physical interaction. For other uses, see Telekinesis disambiguation. For the South Korean film, see Psychokinesis film. Main articles. Death and culture Parapsychology Scientific literacy. See also: Mentalism.
Main article: List of prizes for evidence of the paranormal. See also: Spoon bending. Clairvoyance Energy esotericism Empathy Extrasensory perception Global Consciousness Project Human magnetism Indian rope trick List of psychic abilities List of topics characterized as pseudoscience Mind over matter Psi parapsychology Second sight Spiritism Telepathy Torsion field pseudoscience.
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